Delay-Tolerant Networking work:
Saratoga Bundle Protocol work Interplanetary Internet work HTTP-DTN
Work done with colleagues at Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd and NASA Glenn Research Center.
Defining and enhancing a protocol used operationally.
Now at Sourceforge.
Saratoga is a fast data transfer protocol for hop-by-hop transfers on privately-owned networks - including dedicated sensor networks and the intermittently-connected networks used for delay-tolerant networking. Saratoga is intended for private dedicated point-to-point links, where packet loss is caused by errors and corruption, not by congestion. Saratoga was first developed over a decade ago at Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd to download remote-sensing imagery from satellites, but has found wider interest, including for radio astronomy's Square Kilometre Array. Watch the video describing history and development of Saratoga.
Interplanetary Internet demonstrated from space using Saratoga
Working with NASA Glenn Research Center, Saratoga has been developed further, placed in orbit onboard SSTL's TechDemoSat-1, and written up as an internet-draft for the Internet Engineering Task Force, aiming for experimental status. Saratoga is described in:
- Saratoga update (audio recording), Wesley M. Eddy, IETF 88, Vancouver, November 2013.
- Saratoga - fast data transfer... from space, a longer slideset describing the protocol (last updated June 2013).
- Saratoga: scalable, speedy data delivery for sensor networks, Lloyd Wood, First Annual CCSR Research Symposium (CRS 2011), 30 June 2011.
- Saratoga: A Scalable File Transfer Protocol (IETF copy), Lloyd Wood, Wesley M. Eddy, Charles Smith, Will Ivancic, Chris Jackson and Jim McKim, work in progress as an internet-draft, version -18 submitted to the IETF, November 2015.
- Congestion control for the Saratoga protocol, Lloyd Wood, Wesley M. Eddy and Will Ivancic, work in progress as an internet-draft, version -08 submitted to the IETF, November 2015.
- TFRC-based Congestion Control for Saratoga, Wesley M. Eddy, Lloyd Wood and Will Ivancic, work in progress as an internet-draft, version -08 submitted to the IETF, November 2015.
See also the Saratoga project pages and the Saratoga wiki.
Saratoga has developed and been explored in research over the past few years:
- An Evaluation of Protocol Enhancing Proxies and Modern File Transport Protocols for Geostationary Satellite
Communication, Patrick Finch, Donald Sullivan and Will Ivancic, IEEE Aerospace conference, March 2013.
- A Performance Evaluation of NACK-Oriented Protocols as the Foundation of Reliable Delay-Tolerant Networking Convergence Layers, Dennis Iannicca, Alan Hylton and Joseph Ishac, NASA Technical Memorandum 2012-216047, NASA Glenn Research Center, December 2012. (Uses BER bit error rate when it should say PER packet error rate.)
- Saratoga: a Scalable File Transfer Protocol - High Speed Performance Testing, Will Ivancic and Dave Stewart, DOE Advanced Networking Initiative Testbed Review, May 2012.
- A 100-Gigabit Highway for Science - Researchers Take a "Test Drive" on ANI Testbed, Linda Vu, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, for ESnet Energy Sciences Network, 30 April 2012.
- Saratoga: A Scalable File Transfer Protocol, Will Ivancic, IETF 81 TSVWG group meeting, Quebec, 29 July 2011 (audio stream 1:16:00-1:39:00).
- Taking Saratoga from Space-Based Ground Sensors to Ground-Based Space Sensors, Lloyd Wood, Charles Smith, Wesley M. Eddy, Will Ivancic and Chris Jackson, IEEE Aerospace conference, Big Sky, Montana, March 2011.
- A Sender-based TFRC for Saratoga: A Rate Control Mechanism for a Space-Friendly Transfer Protocol, Abu Zafar M. Shahriar, Mohammed Atiquzzaman, Will Ivancic and Lloyd Wood, IEEE Aerospace conference, Big Sky, Montana, March 2011.
- Challenges in Data Sensing, Transmission and Access posed by New Radio Astronomy Telescopes, Charles Smith, presentation to the Centre for Communication Systems Research (CCSR), University of Surrey, Guildford, 25 October 2010.
- Overhead estimation of selected protocols for file transfer, Muhammad Muhammad and Matteo Berioli, Fifth Advanced Satellite Multimedia Systems (ASMS) conference, Cagliari, Italy, 13-15 September 2010.
- Moving large data sets around: taking Saratoga from space-based ground sensors to ground-based space sensors, Charles Smith, presentation to the Centre for Advanced Internet Architectures (CAIA), Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia, 9 September 2010.
- Efficient Delivery of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Data, Will Ivancic and Donald Sullivan, Earth Science Technology Forum 2010, 23 June 2010 (presentation).
- Performance evaluation of NEMO in satellite networks, Abu Zafar M. Shahriar, Mohammed Atiquzzaman and Will Ivancic, MILCOM 2008, San Diego, California, November 2008.
- Extension and ns2 Implementation of Saratoga, Abu Zafar M. Shahriar and Mohammed Atiquzzaman, Technical report TR-OU-TNRL-10-106, December 2010, previously Saratoga implementation in ns-2, Abu Zafar M. Shahriar and Mohammed Atiquzzaman, Technical report TR-OU-TNRL-08-101, October 2008, Telecommunication and Networks Research Lab, School of Computer Science, Oklahoma University.
Saratoga has also previously been used for Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Bundle Protocol transfers. Using Saratoga, we are the first to demonstrate Bundle Protocol transfers from space for the Interplanetary Internet.
- Saratoga: a Delay-Tolerant Networking convergence layer with efficient link utilization, Lloyd Wood, Wesley M. Eddy, Will Ivancic, Jim McKim and Chris Jackson, Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications (IWSSC '07), Salzburg, Austria, September 2007, pp. 168-172.
- Saratoga: a bundle convergence layer, Lloyd Wood, slideset presented at the IETF 69 DTNRG group meeting (audio recording 1:22:00 onwards), Chicago, July 2007.
- Saratoga: efficient transport over short-lived links, Wesley M. Eddy, slideset presented at the IETF 69 TSV area group meeting (audio recording 38:30 onwards), Chicago, July 2007.
- Introducing Saratoga, Lloyd Wood, slideset presented at the DTNRG workshop, Dublin, May 2007.
Development on Saratoga and resulting internet-drafts sprang from the collaboration involved in working with CLEO, the Cisco router in Low Earth Orbit.
Saratoga is named for the USS Saratoga, sunk near Bikini Atoll and now a popular diving site.