CLEO: Cisco router in low Earth orbit
work done with the Cisco Systems Space team, NASA Glenn Research Center, and Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd at the University of Surrey.
Lloyd Wood and his colleagues argue in favor of breaking the "bent pipe" system architecture in which the satellite is seen as a relay point between two ground stations. They would add inter-satellite communication links and routers to decouple the up and downlink locations. -- Press, First Monday.
CLEO, the Cisco router in Low Earth Orbit, is a commercial Internet router launched into space and operated from orbit as a hosted payload onboard the UK-DMC(-1) satellite:
CLEO demonstrates use of the Internet Protocol in space and integration with the terrestrial Internet.
The success of CLEO has led to:
And, much later, Cisco talked of protecting networks on Mars.
Here is material overviewing what CLEO is, how it was integrated into the UK-DMC satellite built by SSTL and launched into orbit, and how CLEO and UK-DMC imaging as part of the Disaster Monitoring Constellation were tested by an international collaboration of civil, commercial and military organisations in the United States, United Kingdom, and in Japan. That work with CLEO has been recognised with a number of awards and ceremonies.
CLEO is a full Cisco router running commercial off-the-shelf Cisco IOS software in orbit: IOS release 12.2(11)YQ. CLEO is the first Cisco router in space. CLEO is an assembly of a Cisco 3251 mobile access router and serial card (now end of life).
CLEO has been operational in orbit for over eight years and has been tested from orbit for over four of those years. CLEO has been powered up for use more than one hundred times. Access to the CLEO router was demonstrated to the AFEI Net-Centric Operations 2005 conference (May 2005) and at the IEEE Milcom 2005 conference and exhibition (October 2005).
A slideset summarises CLEO:
Video and recordings of talks discussing CLEO are available on the video page.
Video describing the CLEO router in space and DMC satellites (ten minutes) is available.
End of operations
The UK-DMC(-1) satellite, which has been joined in orbit by the later UK-DMC 2 satellite, has now reached the end of its operational life, but the Disaster Monitoring Constellation continues with its sister satellites:
- Cisco Salutes CLEO, the Cisco router in Low Earth Orbit, Cara Sloman, Cisco Systems government blog, 5 December 2011.
- UK-DMC-1 to take well-earned retirement, SSTL space blog, 25 November 2011.
- The future of the Internet in space, SSTL space blog, 4 November 2011.
- EO satellites outlive their design, SSTL space blog, 30 September 2011.
- UK celebrates a decade of disaster monitoring from space, SSTL press release, 17 February 2011.
- SSTL satellite steps aside to reduce space junk, SSTL press release, 10 November 2010.
Highlighted articles are recommended reading. For further information on the testing of the CLEO router, see:
- Investigating operation of the Internet in orbit: Five years of collaboration around CLEO, Lloyd Wood, Will Ivancic, Wesley M. Eddy, Dave Stewart, James Northam and Chris Jackson, IEEE Communications Society Satellite and Space Communications Technical Committee Newsletter, vol. 18 no. 2, pp. 10-11, November 2008.
- Extending the Internet into space, Stefano Venturi, Paolo Massafra and Klaus-Peter Doerpelkus, ch. 8, Aerospace Technologies and Applications for Dual Use, Marina Ruggieri (ed.), River Publishers, 2008.
- IPv6 and IPsec Tests of a Space-Based Asset, the Cisco router in Low Earth Orbit (CLEO), Will Ivancic, Dave Stewart, Lloyd Wood, Chris Jackson, James Northam and James Wilhelm, NASA Technical Memorandum TM-2008-215203, May 2008.
- IPv6 and IPsec on a satellite in space, Lloyd Wood, Will Ivancic, Dave Stewart, James Northam, Chris Jackson and Alex da Silva Curiel, 58th International Astronautical Congress, Hyderabad, India, 24-28 September 2007, vol. 5, pp. 2986-2992.
- Connections amidst the emptiness: internet protocol in space, Richard Sanford, Commerce in France magazine, Fall 2007, pp. 19-21.
- Using Internet nodes and routers onboard satellites, Lloyd Wood, Will Ivancic, Dave Hodgson, Eric Miller, Brett Conner, Scott Lynch, Chris Jackson, Alex da Silva Curiel, Dave Cooke, Dan Shell, Jon Walke and Dave Stewart, special issue on Space Networks, International Journal of Satellite Communications and Networking, vol. 25 issue 2, pp. 195-216, March/April 2007.
- Cisco router on UK-DMC first to use IPv6 onboard a satellite in orbit, SSTL news item, 29 March 2007.
- Small satellite multi-mission command and control for maximum effect, Eric Miller, Richard Lane, Allen Kirkham, Omar Medina, Will Ivancic, Brenda Jones and Ron Risty, US Air Force Space Command's High Frontier, vol. 3 no. 1, pp. 58-64, November 2006.
- Internet to Orbit, Daniel Floreani and Lloyd Wood, Cisco Systems Packet Magazine, vol. 17 no. 3, third quarter 2005, pp. 19-23.
- Secure, Network-Centric Operations of a Space-Based Asset: Cisco Router in Low-Earth Orbit (CLEO) and Virtual Mission Operations Center (VMOC), Will Ivancic, Dave Stewart, Dan Shell, Lloyd Wood, Phil Paulsen, Chris Jackson, Dave Hodgson, James Northam, Neville Bean, Eric Miller, Mark Graves, Lance Kurisaki, NASA technical memorandum TM-2005-213556, May 2005.
- Cisco Systems is at the Forefront of Extending the Internet Into Space, Jenny Carless, Cisco Newsroom story, as seen on Newsroom, 30 June 2004.
Access to the CLEO router was demonstrated to the AFEI Net-Centric Operations 2005 conference (May 2005) and at the IEEE Milcom 2005 conference and exhibition (October 2005).
Articles and commentary
Commentary on CLEO in the blogosphere includes:
...and CLEO made Slashdot. Media coverage of CLEO includes:
- Hosted Payload Pioneered Internet in Space, Surrey Satellite Technology US blog, 30 October 2012.
- Interview with Rick Sanford, David Livingston, The Space Show, podcast, 4:00 -, 1 February 2006.
- 2005: a Cisco Space Odyssey, Tony Kinner, ITproPortal Technology Watch, 24 November 2005.
- Cisco goes to space, Roland Piquepaille, ZDNet Emerging Technology Trends, 19 November 2005.
- Router in the sky, Om Malik, 19 November 2005.
- Mostly News Show 4, podcast, 8:33 - 9:40, 4 November 2005.
- Cisco's Internet Routers In Space, S
tephen Lawson, CIO, 7 July 2009.
- Net reaches out to final frontier, BBC News, 13 April 2007.
- Enterpreneurs' final frontier, Rick Merritt, EETimes, 1 January 2007.
- Secure networks for military and first responders, NASA feature, 28 November 2006.
- Looking for Orbital Routers, Defense News, 24 April 2006.
- Cisco eyes linking to satellites, Travis Pryor, The Daily Times-Call, 9 April 2006.
- Cisco in space, Phil Hochmuth, Network World, vol. 22 no. 43, 31 October 2005.
- The Force is with IP, Peter Coffee, eWeek, 31 October 2005.
- Driving down mission costs, Military Aerospace Technology, vol. 4 no. 3, 20 October 2005.
- Protocols in Space, Military Information Technology, vol. 9 no. 8, 4 October 2005.
- IP in the sky, Michael Desmond, Government Computer News vol. 24 no. 21, 1 August 2005.
- NASA report sees potential for IP-based space communications, Military Information Technology, vol. 9 no. 4, 13 June 2005.
- Technology initiatives in support of joint warfighters - seamless integration from space to mud, Michael Schexnayder, United States Army Magazine, vol. 54 issue 12, p. 43, December 2004.
- Keeping troops virtually in the loop, Henry S. Kenyon, Signal, Armed Forces Communications and Electronics Association (AFCEA) magazine, August 2004.
- Seeking the shortest
distance, Janene Scully, Santa Maria Times, 16 June 2004. Also published as VMOC: Military eyes in the sky, Janene Scully, The Lompoc Record, 16 June 2004.
Space Battlelab demonstrate satellite capabilities using Internet, Space and Missile Times, Vandenberg Air Force Base, 11 June 2004.
- Cisco takes its Internet router to space, Jason Bates, Space News, 19 April 2004.
- The space industry needs dedicated partners, vendors need not apply, advertisement feature, pp. 66-67, D. Mitchell (ed.), Quest for Space 2004, Belmont International, ISBN 1-891965-10-7.
- Internet Technology: Pushing the Limits, Peter J. Brown, Via Satellite, 1 December 2003.
Other conference papers describing work with the CLEO router in orbit include:
- K. Suzuki, K. Wakamori, H. Kato, N. Omoto and W. Ivancic, Near real-time IP based disaster imaging acquisition system using small satellite (3), IEICE Society Conference, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, 13-16 September 2011.
- K. Suzuki, K. Wakamori, H. Kato, N. Omoto, T. Okamoto and R. Suzuki, Near real-time IP based disaster imaging acquisition system using small satellite (2), IEICE Society Conference, Niigata, Japan, September 2009.
- K. Suzuki, N. Nishinaga, H. Kato, N. Omoto and Y. Suga, Near real-time IP based disaster imaging data acquisition system using small satellite, The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers General Assembly, 2007, B-3-5, p. 255, September 2007.
- W. Ivancic, Secure, Autonomous, Intelligent Controller for Integrating Distributed Sensor Webs, IEEE Aerospace conference, March 2007, also NASA TM-2007-214807, May 2007.
- L. Wood, D. Shell, W. Ivancic, B. Conner, E. Miller, D. Stewart and D. Hodgson, CLEO and VMOC: enabling warfighters to task space payloads, IEEE Milcom 2005, Atlantic City, New Jersey, 17-20 October 2005.
- L. Boland, A. da Silva Curiel, M. Sweeting, P. Stephens and D. Hodgson, Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) - Success based on Small Satellite Technologies, paper SSC05-IV-03, 19th Annual AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites, Logan, Utah, 8-11 August 2005.
- B. P. Conner, L. Dikeman, V. Osweiler, D. Schoenfelt, S. Groves, P. E. Paulsen, W. Ivancic, J. Walke and E. Miller, Bringing Space Capabilities to the Warfighter: Virtual Mission Operations Center (VMOC), paper SSC04-II-7, 18th Annual AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites, Logan, Utah, 9-12 August 2004.
- L. Wood, A. da Silva Curiel, J. Anzalchi, D. Cooke and C. Jackson, Slot clouds: getting more from orbital slots with networking, conference paper IAC-03-U.4.07, 54th International Astronautical Congress, Bremen, Germany, 29 September - 3 October 2003.
- NASA Glenn archive of papers.
Papers placing the CLEO work in context:
- K. Hogie, E. Criscuolo and R. Parise, Putting more Internet nodes in space, CSC World, Computer Sciences Corporation, pp. 21-23, April/June 2006.
- K. Hogie, E. Criscuolo and R. Parise, Using standard Internet Protocols
and applications in space, Computer Networks, special issue on Interplanetary Internet, vol. 47 no. 5, pp.
603-650, April 2005.
Coverage of the launch into space:
- IT's final frontier, Colin Haley,
internetnews.com, 5 March 2004.
- Internet Space, Shane Harris, Government
Executive, 14 October 2003.
- Space: The final sales opportunity, Andrew Donoghue, ZDNet UK, 7 October 2003.
- Cisco shoots for the
stars, David M. Ewalt, InformationWeek, 6 October 2003.
- Shooting for space, Caron Carlson, eWeek, 6 October 2003.
- Space No Longer Final Frontier for Cisco Internet Gear, Charles Waltner, Cisco press release, 26 September 2003.
Coverage from around the world:
- Cisco and network connections in space with Cisco Space Router and Internet Routing in Space (IRIS) (in Thai), TechTalk Thai, 5 November 2015.
- Cisco w kosmosie (in Polish), Rozmawiali Krzysztof Jakubik and Rafal Janus, Net focus, 18 November 2009.
- Kosmiczny router Cisco (in Polish), Janusz Chustecki, IT Partner, from IDG News Service, 8 July 2009.
- Geeks in space (in Polish), Cisco Forum blog, 26 March 2009.
- IP sítě a Cisco směrovač na orbitální dráze (in Czech), Luboš Klaška, 2 January 2006.
- Force - in IP (Russian translation of Peter Coffee's The Force is with IP), 21 December 2005.
- Cisco in Space (in Russian), 24 November 2005.
- L'IP è pronto per la conquista dello spazio (Italian), Network World Online, 17 November 2005.
- coverage in Japanese, 2 November 2005.
- coverage in Polish, 19 July 2004.
- coverage in Hungarian, 26 May 2004.
- Cisco teste le premier routeur dans l'espace (in French), Etats-Unis Espace no. 313, 25 April 2004.
...and our Internet to Orbit article is also available in Japanese and Chinese. Further information on VMOC is available.