Approximate Momentum Conservation for Spatial Semidiscretizations of Nonlinear Wave Equations

Marcel Oliver (Bremen), Matthew West (CalTech), Claudia Wulff (Warwick, FU Berlin, Surrey)

Abstract: We prove that a standard second order finite difference uniform space discretization of the nonlinear wave equation with periodic boundary conditions, analytic nonlinearity, and analytic initial data conserves moentum up to an error which is exponentially small in the stepsize. Our estimates are valid for as long as the trajectories of the full nonlinear wave equation remain real analytic. The method of proof is that of backward error analysis, whereby we construct a modified equation which is itself Lagrangian and translation invariant, and therefore also conserves momentum. This modified equation interpolates the semidiscrete system for all time, and we prove that it remains exponentially close to the trigonometric interpolation of the semidiscrete system. These properties directly imply approximate momentum conservation for the semidiscrete system. We also consider discretizations that are not variational as well as discretizations on non-uniform grids. Through numerical example as well as arguments from geometric mechanics and perturbation theory we show that such methods generically do not approximately preserve momentum.

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